first_imgAntibiotic use caused different responses in the Dahl rats and SHR rats, including the way that each drug affected the rats’ blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure–the force of blood pushing through the arteries while the heart beats–increased in Dahl rats when treated with minocycline and neomycin but not when given vancomycin. Minocycline also caused the diastolic blood pressure–the pressure in the arteries while the heart is at rest–to rise in the Dahl rats. SHR rats treated with any of the antibiotics experienced either a drop in systolic blood pressure, or no change, as with neomycin.These findings suggest that “the host [genetic makeup] plays an important role in how blood pressure will be affected differentially by antibiotic treatment. This highlights the importance of further studies to determine the mechanism behind these different effects,” the researchers wrote. “This raises the question of safety in the usage of antibiotics by patients with such modern ailments [as hypertension].”Source: http://www.the-aps.org/mm/hp/Audiences/Public-Press/2018/49.html Aug 23 2018Individual variations in genetic makeup and gut bacteria may explain the different effects of antibiotics on blood pressure, a new rat study suggests. The findings are published ahead of print in Physiological Genomics.Gut microbiota–bacteria that populate the gastrointestinal tract–are a mixture of organisms that play a role both in health and in the development of illness or disease, including high blood pressure (hypertension). Just as individuals’ genes vary, each person’s gut microbiota is diverse. As antibiotics kill harmful bacteria to cure infections, they may also eliminate helpful bacteria that maintain good health. Because gut microbiota are linked to an individual’s high blood pressure, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences researchers explained, “individual hypertensive responses to antibiotics may vary depending on the host and its microbiota.”Related StoriesHealthy lifestyle lowers dementia risk despite genetic predispositionRepurposing a heart drug could increase survival rate of children with ependymomaNew research could help design algae that produces fuels and cleanup chemicalsThe research team studied two strains of rats that have different gut microbiota but both have a genetic tendency for hypertension. Dahl salt-sensitive rats (“Dahl rats”) develop high blood pressure in response to a high-salt diet, while spontaneously hypertensive rats (“SHR rats”) are seen as an animal model of high blood pressure unrelated to dietary salt. The researchers treated both strains with three common antibiotics: vancomycin, which treats inflammation and infection of the colon (colitis); minocycline, which treats urinary tract infections, acne and certain types of sexually transmitted infections; and neomycin, which is used to prevent high cholesterol and is an active ingredient in many medicated creams, ointments and eye drops.last_img read more

first_imgReviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Aug 27 2018A clock drawing test for detecting cognitive dysfunction should be conducted routinely in patients with high blood pressure, according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2018.Patients with high blood pressure who have impaired cognitive function are at increased risk of developing dementia within five years. Despite this known link, cognitive function is not routinely measured in patients with high blood pressure.”The ability to draw the numbers of a clock and a particular time is an easy way to find out if a patient with high blood pressure has cognitive impairment,” said study author Dr Augusto Vicario of the Heart and Brain Unit, Cardiovascular Institute of Buenos Aires, Argentina. “Identifying these patients provides the opportunity to intervene before dementia develops.”The Heart-Brain Study in Argentina evaluated the usefulness of the clock drawing test compared to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to detect cognitive impairment in 1,414 adults with high blood pressure recruited from 18 cardiology centers in Argentina. The average blood pressure was 144/84 mmHg, average age was 60 years, and 62% were women.For the clock drawing test, patients were given a piece of paper with a 10 cm diameter circle on it. They were asked to write the numbers of the clock in the correct position inside the circle and then draw hands on the clock indicating the time “twenty to four”. Patients were scored as having normal, moderate, or severe cognitive impairment. The MMSE has 11 questions and produces a score out of 30 indicating no (24-30), mild (18-23), or severe (0-17) cognitive impairment.Related StoriesDon’t ignore diastolic blood pressure values, say researchersBlood pressure self-monitoring can help patients with hypertension to stick with exercise programMathematical model helps quantify metastatic cell behaviorThe researchers found a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment with the clock drawing test (36%) compared to the MMSE (21%). Three out ten patients who had a normal MMSE score had an abnormal clock drawing result. The disparity in results between the two tests was greatest in middle aged patients.Dr Vicario said: “Untreated high blood pressure silently and progressively damages the arteries in the subcortex of the brain and stops communication between the subcortex and frontal lobe. This disconnect leads to impaired ‘executive functions’ such as planning, visuospatial abilities, remembering details, and decision-making. The clock drawing test is known to evaluate executive functions. The MMSE evaluates several other cognitive abilities but is weakly correlated with executive functions.”He continued: “Our study suggests that the clock drawing test should be preferred over the MMSE for early detection of executive dysfunction in patients with high blood pressure, particularly in middle age. We think the score on the clock drawing test can be considered a surrogate measure of silent vascular damage in the brain and identifies patients at greater risk of developing dementia. In our study more than one-third of patients were at risk.”Dr Vicario concluded: “The clock drawing test should be adopted as a routine screening tool for cognitive decline in patients with high blood pressure. Further studies are needed to determine whether lowering blood pressure can prevent progression to dementia.” Source:https://www.escardio.org/The-ESC/Press-Office/Press-releases/Clock-drawing-cognitive-test-should-be-done-routinely-in-patients-with-high-blood-pressurelast_img read more

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Aug 29 2018A clinical trial of more than 1,000 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) found that the drug ranolazine (commonly used to treat chest pain; brand name Ranexa®) was safe but didn’t significantly decrease the likelihood of the first occurrence of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or death in this high-risk population. The study was published recently in JACC, the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center launched the National Institutes of Health-sponsored trial in 2011 after previous studies suggested ranolazine might cut the incidence of arrhythmias. A limited number of anti-arrhythmic therapies have been developed and tested over the past 25 years, leaving doctors and patients with older treatment options that often come with substantial side effects.The trial, which was conducted at 95 centers in the United States and Canada, did reveal a bright spot for ranolazine: the drug lowered the number of recurring episodes of ventricular tachycardia, a fast, abnormal heart rate that begins in the ventricles (lower chambers of the heart) and can cause dizziness, lightheadedness, palpitations or loss of consciousness. The results suggest that there could be a potential role for ranolazine in patients with ICDs who can’t tolerate other drugs or aren’t eligible for ablation, a procedure that attempts to correct faulty heart rhythms.”This drug is already on the market to treat chest pain, and while it didn’t provide the revolutionary results we had hoped for, I think there’s a place for it in the toolbox of treatments for select patients,” said Wojciech Zareba, M.D., Ph.D., lead study author and professor of Cardiology at the University of Rochester Medical Center. “Ventricular tachycardia is the most common arrhythmia that individuals with ICDs experience. This drug could be an option for patients who haven’t had success with other therapies.”The double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial included 1,012 individuals with cardiomyopathy, a disease of the heart muscle that makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood throughout the body. All participants had ICDs and were at high risk for ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF), irregular heart rhythms that are associated with increased hospitalizations and death.Related StoriesOpioid overdose deaths on the decline says CDC but the real picture may still be grimHow a simple MRI scan can help patients with anginaCreating a physical and genetic map of Cannabis sativaThe average age of participants was 64 years and 18 percent were women. Half received 1,000 mg of ranolazine orally twice daily and half received a placebo pill. Approximately 34 percent of patients who took ranolazine experienced ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or death, compared to 39 percent of individuals in the placebo group. Though the number in the ranolazine group was lower, the difference between groups was not large enough to be considered “significant” or meaningful.Upon further analysis, the researchers found that the risk for recurrent ventricular tachycardia was 30 percent lower in patients randomized to receive ranolazine compared with placebo.Mehmet Aktas, M.D., associate professor of Cardiology and a member of the UR Medicine Heart & Vascular team enrolled 20 patients at the University of Rochester Medical Center.”Through this trial we learned that ranalozine can be administered safely in patients with life threatening abnormal heart rhythms and that it can be given concomitantly with other commonly used antiarrhythmic drugs,” said Aktas. “This trial provides clinicians with one more treatment option for patients who have recurrent lethal arrhythmias, which is huge given that this is a very sick population for which we often have limited therapies.”A major limitation of the study was that nearly half of the study participants discontinued the study drugs (both ranolazine and placebo).The trial, dubbed RAID (Ranolazine in High-Risk Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Patients), was funded with a $9.5 million grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health. Gilead Sciences, Inc., the biopharmaceutical company that markets ranolazine, donated the drug and placebo needed for the trial. Source:https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/last_img read more

first_img Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe The French secretary of state for higher education and research, Geneviève Fioraso, has stepped down for health reasons, the French government announced yesterday. The minister in charge of national education, higher education, and research, Najat Vallaud-Belkacem, will temporarily take over her duties.Fioraso became minister for higher education and research in May 2012 after François Hollande was elected president; her role was downgraded to that of secretary of state last year in a Cabinet reshuffle. Fioraso’s main achievement was a new law that aimed to simplify France’s higher education and research landscape and give the nation a stronger strategic research agenda; it was passed in 2013 after an exhaustive nationwide consultation.Limited by France’s austerity policies, Fioraso had few budget increases to offer, however, and she came under fire from groups that hoped that she would make a more radical break with the policies of the right-wing government of Nicolas Sarkozy. She was pressured to increase baseline funding for universities and research centers and create more permanent positions for early-career researchers, culminating in a 3-week protest in October. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrycenter_img “We find that she hasn’t done anything good for research,” says Guillaume Bossis, a biologist at the National Center for Scientific Research and spokesman for Sciences en Marche, the group behind last year’s protests. Bossis says Fioraso ignored protests from the scientific community and pretended that all was well while only a minority of well-supported researchers was happy. But Alain Beretz, president of the University of Strasbourg, told Le Monde that he “very much appreciated her commitment to the universities.”Quitting the government is “heartbreaking,” Fioraso told regional newspaper Le Dauphiné Libéré yesterday. The French press has speculated that Hollande will name her successor in another Cabinet reshuffle after France’s departmental elections, which are scheduled for 22 and 29 March. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)last_img read more

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Scientists working in Antarctica are feeling the impact of climate change in ways the public might find surprising. Although global warming is causing Arctic ice to melt and glaciers around the world to shrink, the problem in Antarctica is that the sea ice surrounding the continent is increasing and now hampering ship navigation and resupply operations. This week, scientists and logistics experts from the 30 nations working on the continent are meeting in Hobart, Australia, to exchange ideas on coping with the sea ice challenge.The underlying mechanism is fairly well understood, says Tony Worby, a sea ice specialist at the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre. “We know that the changing Antarctic sea ice extent is very largely driven by changes in wind,” he says. “In turn, we know those changes are driven by the depletion of ozone in the stratosphere as well as increasing greenhouse gases at the surface.” The new wind patterns blow Antarctic sea ice away from the continent and then more ice forms close to shore. This doesn’t occur in the Arctic because the ocean is hemmed in by land masses. And “it’s quite a lot windier around Antarctica than in the Arctic,” Worby says.The area covered by Antarctic sea ice has been growing roughly 1.2% each decade since 1979. Last September, it reached a record 20 million square kilometers surrounding the 14 square kilometer continent. The combined 34 million square kilometers of ice at the end of the austral winter is more than 3.5 times the area of the United States. But understanding the phenomenon doesn’t help ship captains. “It’s very difficult to predict sea ice conditions in the same way that we predict weather,” Worby says. Current models are inadequate, particularly when it comes to predicting ice thickness, a key parameter for ships and ice breakers. And icebergs are a wild card. They are not only an ever-present mobile hazard for ships, but if grounded on the coast they can also seed a long-term buildup of ice.For scientists working on the continent, sea ice has become a major logistical headache. Most research stations are located on the coast, and shippers previously counted on the ice breaking up so their vessels could get near shore, says Rob Wooding, general manager of operations for the Australian Antarctic Division in Kingston. But that hasn’t happened for several years at Australia’s Mawson station, says Wooding, who is also vice-chair of the workshop sponsor, the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs. “In the 2013 to 2014 season we couldn’t get anywhere near Mawson due to the sea ice; we had to get fuel in there by helicopter,” he says. But helicopters are not a long-term solution because of their cost and limited capacity.That same season, the Russian vessel M.V. Akademik Shokalskiy became trapped in sea ice while carrying a team of Australian researchers and some tourists. Ice breakers from three nations attempted in vain to reach the vessel, although scientists and passengers were rescued by helicopter. Shifting winds allowed the ship to break free after a harrowing 10 days. “It’s inevitable that ships will get stuck, but better [sea ice] forecasting will ensure that ships don’t get stuck as often,” Worby says.The issues of forecasting and logistics dominate the agenda of this week’s workshop. Worby would like to be able to give captains 1 to 3 days’ notice of what ice conditions to expect. Doing so will require better modeling of the interaction of ice formation, winds, and currents. Unfortunately, improving the models requires observations, and “Antarctica and the sea ice lanes are some of the most data sparse regions on earth,” he says. They would also need more computing power to crunch the numbers. “Those things are achievable, but it’s going to take some sustained effort,” he says.On the logistics side, Wooding says large cargo planes or hovercraft could ease the pinch, but that most of the discussion will focus on “operating over the ice rather than breaking through the ice into a harbor.” In the long term, he thinks that the need to ensure reliable supply lines might lead to some rethinking of where to locate research bases. But neither he nor Worby foresees any country giving up on Antarctic research.center_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Emaillast_img read more

first_img Time’s Up! LOADING Responsiveness to Larry the Cable Guy Aside from tiring out your muscles, it turns out that exercise also exhausts this body part: Top Ranker Warmer temperatures increase their mating frequency 0 / 10 The Science Quiz Scientists reported last week that meerkats—sociable, weasel-like mammals—base their social hierarchy on what quality? Lotus seeds Researchers have finally come up with an answer for who made a series of mysterious underground rings in this French cave. Whodunit? A recent study found that—thanks to gravity—the core of Earth is younger than its surface by how many years? Results: You answered out of correctly – Click to revisit Your reproductive organs Average Levels of glucose in the brain. The decision to “pull the plug” and remove a loved one from life support is never simple, but the choice could be easier if we understood which patients might wake up in time. Although it’s often hard for doctors and family to pinpoint important nuances that separate a lighter state of unconsciousness from a deeper one, a new type of positron emission tomography (PET) scan might help us fill in the gaps. The new test measures how glucose concentrations change in tissue over time—a proxy for metabolic activity. In a study of 28 normal and 131 semiconscious individuals, neuroscientists found that patients in a state known as “unresponsive wakefulness” had 38% as much metabolic activity as the controls, whereas minimally conscious patients showed 58% as much activity, and people being roused back to consciousness, either from sleep or anesthesia, had 63% of the normal metabolic activity. What’s more, the test distinguished different states of consciousness with 89% accuracy, and accurately predicted recovery in 88% of cases. 2500 years Who can sing the loudest Bacon 20 times its body length. Scientists call it the “big sperm paradox.” Fruit flies’ colossal sperm cells can reach lengths up to 5.8 centimeters, about 1000 times longer than a human’s. But why would the insects invest so much energy in making giant sperm when evolution usually drives males to produce more sperm cells instead? To find out, scientists raised fruit flies under many different conditions to create males with varying levels of fitness. They then analyzed the males and their sperm with genetic tests. Compared with their larger, fitter counterparts, smaller, less-fit males needed to invest more resources to produce large numbers of big sperm. This allows only the fittest males to mate with many partners and thus increases the female’s likelihood of receiving sperm from high-quality mates. Shiftwork Acidic oceans make their prey easier to eat Overfishing is killing their natural competitors. If you thought that was a hard one, you’re right! Ocean acidification and warming temperatures are indeed affecting the creatures, but not in the ways you might expect: Warming is actually speeding up their growth cycle, allowing them to mate earlier, but not more often. (Most cephalopod moms die after giving birth.) Meanwhile, overfishing is killing not only their natural competitors, but their predators as well. That creates gaps in the food chain for these flexible creatures to fill. This is no “cephalopods are taking over the world” story, scientists say, but you have to admit it still makes a mighty good storyboard for the next Godzilla installment. Who has the fattest paunch. For meerkat females, competitive eating isn’t a game—it’s a way of life. When the dominant female dies, her oldest and heaviest daughter replaces her, packing on a few more grams in the process. To find out if this gain is a way to firm up social positions, scientists fed the younger members of pairs of meerkat sisters hard-boiled eggs three times a day. After 3 months, they found that the younger sisters’ weight gain had prompted the older females to eat more so they could grow faster than their rivals. The researchers found similar results among males, leading them to conclude that when it comes to staying on top, size really does matter to meerkats. 40 times its body length Aliens 250 years Your eyes. As if you needed another reason to hate the gym, it now turns out that exercise can exhaust not only your muscles, but also your eyes. During strenuous exercise, our muscles tire as they run out of fuel and build up waste products. They also exhaust themselves due to “central fatigue,” an imbalance in the body’s chemical messengers. It turns out that central fatigue also affects motor systems not directly involved in the exercise itself—such as those that move the eyes. Fear not, however, for caffeine can perk them right up again. In a study of cyclists, the equivalent of two strong cups of coffee was sufficient to counteract this effect. Barley Sorghum Bears Napoleon Researchers found a surprising ingredient in China’s first batch of ancient homebrewed beer. What was it? Warmer temperatures allow them to live longer Who has the fattest paunch Start Quiz Cellphones Your brain You Biologists reported last week that cephalopods like octopus, squid, and cuttlefish (left) are experiencing a worldwide population boom. What is one possible reason?center_img 25 years Depending on which of last week’s headlines are to be trusted, this may—or may not—cause cancer: 10 times its body length Neandertals. Deep within a cave where no light penetrates are two curious structures: large rings of stalagmites, some broken and arranged like the rails of old-fashioned wooden fences. When discovered in the early 1990s, scientists didn’t know what to make of the formations, which appeared to be fire-scorched in places. Now, they may have an answer: The rings were built by Neandertals, who learned to explore caves extensively and engaged in complex building behaviors like arranging stones more than 175,000 years ago, much earlier than thought. 0 Score 2.5 years Neandertals Sirius Overfishing is killing their natural competitors Scott Portelli Question Your kidneys Who has the softest fur 20 times its body length An error occurred loading the Quiz. Please try again later. Share your score Levels of protein plaques in the brain Cellphones. A new study from the National Toxicology Program has found that long-term exposure to cellphone radiation may contribute to two rare kinds of cancer in male rats. But researchers say the study is far from conclusive. It’s not clear, for example, why cancer rates rose in male but not female rats, or why rats exposed to cellphone radiation lived, on average, longer than radiation-free rats. The study also does not pinpoint a biological mechanism that would account for the findings. And, as usual, it comes with the caveat that studies of rodents can mean little for humans. Last week, a senior U.S. lawmaker who helps write NASA’s budget called on the agency to begin developing its own interstellar probes for a mission to what star system? Alpha Centauri. Hot on the heels of the Breakthrough Starshot project, U.S. Representative John Culberson—a self-professed space fan—called for the ambitious voyage in a committee report released last week, encouraging NASA engineers to develop propulsion systems that could achieve a cruise velocity of 10% of the speed of light. Many scientists consider the idea of interstellar travel to still be firmly in the domain of science fiction, mainly because of the vast distances involved. Our nearest star system, Alpha Centauri is 4.4 light-years away, or nearly 40 trillion kilometers. Even with the fastest spacecraft on record—which traveled at speeds of 250,000 kilometers per hour—it would take probes 18,000 years to reach Alpha Centauri. To get there in anywhere close to a human lifespan, spacecraft will need to travel a substantial fraction of light-speed—10% would get a craft to Alpha Centauri in 44 years. The proposal calls for a launch by the year 2069, the centenary of the Apollo 11 landing. Alpha Centauri Your eyes Vanilla Ice Every Monday, The Science Quiz tests your knowledge of the week’s biggest science news stories. No matter how much you know, you’re still likely to learn something–give it a try! About 2.5 years. Time flies when you’re having fun—or when you’re on the surface of Earth! That’s because, thanks to how very large objects can warp time, time moves slowly where gravitational force is stronger—like the center of Earth. Because there’s no direct way to measure time at Earth’s core, scientists used a measure called gravitational potential—how much work it takes to move an object from one place to another—to figure out the time difference between Earth’s core and its surface. They found that gravity has resulted in a nearly 2.5 year gap between them. So the next time you’re having a dull day at the office, consider telling your colleagues how much it’s like being stuck at the center of Earth. Levels of oxygen in the brain May 30, 2016 The Science Quiz The faster you answer, the higher your score! Barley. Beer recipes change over time. Hops, for example—which give many a modern brewski its bitter, citrusy flavor—are a relatively recent addition to the beverage, first mentioned in the 9th century. Now, researchers have found a surprising ingredient in residue from 5000-year-old beer brewing equipment in China. The yellowish, dried dregs of the vessels contained cereal crops like millet and barley, along with bits of tubers like yams and lilies (these would have sweetened the brew). But barley was the unexpected find: The crop was domesticated in western Eurasia and didn’t become a staple food in central China until about 2000 years ago. Based on that timing, they suggest barley may have arrived in the region not as food, but as fodder for brewing beer. Neuroscientists last week said they may have a new, revolutionary way to tell if patients will reawaken from a vegetative state. What did they measure? Levels of glucose in the brain 5 times its body length Who has the strongest toes Artemisinin AR Cassiopeiae You probably didn’t suspect it, but fruit flies have some of the world’s longest sperm relative to body size. Just how long is a fly’s megasperm? Polaris May 30, 2016last_img read more

first_img James Gathany/CDC One of the investigators leading the studies, however, says he’s happy he can resume his experiments. “We are glad the United States government weighed the risks and benefits … and developed new oversight mechanisms. We know that it does carry risks. We also believe it is important work to protect human health,” says Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Tokyo. The other group that got the green light is led by Ron Fouchier at Erasmus University Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.In 2011, Fouchier and Kawaoka alarmed the world by revealing they had separately modified the deadly avian H5N1 influenza virus so that it spread between ferrets. Advocates of such gain of function (GOF) studies say they can help public health experts better understand how viruses might spread and plan for pandemics. But by enabling the bird virus to more easily spread among mammals, the experiments also raised fears that the pathogen could jump to humans. And critics of the work worried that such a souped-up virus could spark a pandemic if it escaped from a lab or was intentionally released by a bioterrorist. After extensive discussion about whether the two studies should even be published (they ultimately were) and a voluntary moratorium by the two labs, the experiments resumed in 2013 under new U.S. oversight rules. Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country A worker at a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention laboratory harvests avian flu viruses for sharing with other laboratories in 2013. Controversial lab studies that modify bird flu viruses in ways that could make them more risky to humans will soon resume after being on hold for more than 4 years. ScienceInsider has learned that last year, a U.S. government review panel quietly approved experiments proposed by two labs that were previously considered so dangerous that federal officials had imposed an unusual top-down moratorium on such research.One of the projects has already received funding from the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in Bethesda, Maryland, and will start in a few weeks; the other is awaiting funding.The outcome may not satisfy scientists who believe certain studies that aim to make pathogens more potent or more likely to spread in mammals are so risky they should be limited or even banned. Some are upset because the government’s review will not be made public. “After a deliberative process that cost $1 million for [a consultant’s] external study and consumed countless weeks and months of time for many scientists, we are now being asked to trust a completely opaque process where the outcome is to permit the continuation of dangerous experiments,“ says Harvard University epidemiologist Marc Lipsitch.  Martin Enserink/Science EXCLUSIVE: Controversial experiments that could make bird flu more risky poised to resume Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe By Jocelyn KaiserFeb. 8, 2019 , 8:45 PM Yoshihiro Kawaoka (left) and Ron Fouchier (right) in 2012, after their work with H5N1 bird flu virus sparked a global controversy over research that can potentially make pathogens more dangerous to humans. But concerns reignited after more papers and a series of accidents at federal biocontainment labs. In October 2014, U.S. officials announced an unprecedented “pause” on funding for 18 GOF studies involving influenza or the Middle East respiratory syndrome or severe acute respiratory syndrome viruses. (About half were later allowed to continue because the work didn’t fit the definition or was deemed essential to public health.)There followed two National Academy of Sciences workshops, recommendations from a federal advisory board, and a new U.S. policy for evaluating proposed studies involving “enhanced potential pandemic pathogens” (known as ePPPs). In December 2017, NIH lifted the funding pause and invited new GOF proposals that would be reviewed by a committee with wide-ranging expertise drawn from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in Washington, D.C., and other federal agencies.Now, the HHS committee has approved the same type of work in the Kawaoka and Fouchier labs that set off the furor 8 years ago. Last summer, the committee reviewed the projects and made recommendations about risk-benefit analyses, safety measures to avoid exposures, and communications plans, an HHS spokesperson says.After the investigators revised their plans, the HHS committee recommended that they proceed. Kawaoka learned from NIH on 10 January that his grant has been funded. Fouchier expects the agency may hold off on making a funding decision until after a routine U.S. inspection of his lab in March.Kawaoka’s grant is the same one on H5N1 that was paused in 2014. It includes identifying mutations in H5N1 that allow it to be transmitted by respiratory droplets in ferrets. He shared a list of reporting requirements that appear to reflect the new HHS review criteria. For example, he must immediately notify NIAID if he identifies an H5N1 strain that is both able to spread via respiratory droplets in ferrets and is highly pathogenic, or if he develops an EPPP that is resistant to antiviral drugs. Under the HHS framework, his grant now specifies reporting timelines and who he must notify at the NIAID and his university.Fouchier’s proposed projects are part of a contract led by virologists at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City (most of Project 5, Aim 3.1, and Project 6 in this letter). They include identifying molecular changes that make flu viruses more virulent and mutations that emerge when H5N1 is passaged through ferrets. The HHS panel did not ask that any proposed experiments be removed or modified. Suggestions included clarifying how his team will monitor workers for possible exposures and justifying the strains they plan to work with, which include H7N9 viruses, Fouchier says. HHS cannot make the panel’s reviews public because they contain proprietary and grant competition information, says the spokesperson. But critics say that isn’t acceptable. “Details regarding the decision to approve and fund this work should be made transparent,” says Thomas Inglesby, director of Center for Health Security of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland. The lack of openness “is disturbing. And indefensible,” says microbiologist Richard Ebright of Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey. The critics say the HHS panel should at least publicly explain why it thought the same questions could not be answered using safer alternative methods.One researcher who has sympathized with both sides in the debate finds the safety conditions imposed on Kawaoka reassuring. “That list… makes a lot of sense,” says virologist Michael Imperiale of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. “At this point I’m willing to trust the system.”Click here and here to read more of our reporting on the H5N1 controversy.*Clarification, 9 February, 10:30 a.m.: This story has been updated to clarify that one goal of the controversial experiments is to make the H5N1 virus transmissible in mammals (often ferrets), not humans.*Update, 11 February, 2:46 p.m.: This story has been updated with reaction from a number of scientists, and a clarification of the studies proposed by Fouchier.last_img read more

first_imgTraditional recycling methods produce dirty gray pellets (known as nurdles) that few manufacturers want to use, but this chemical recycling process creates plastic on par with brand new material. What’s more, the new method doesn’t require extra sorting. To demonstrate, the team mixed their material with shards of CD cases, plastic straws, and similar waste. Even in the presence of these other plastics, the new material’s molecules separated out.   The next big question is whether manufacturers will use it and recycling plants will accept it. Because the new plastic’s byproducts are more valuable—and because recycling plants likely wouldn’t need a total overhaul to process it, this sustainable plastic could one day shift the global economics of plastic recycling. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Jie Zhao/Corbis via Getty Images Email By Alex FoxApr. 22, 2019 , 11:00 AM Most plastics have a chemical history that makes starting a new life a challenge. The dyes and flame retardants that make them perfect for say, a couch cushion or a bottle of detergent, make them tough to transform into a desirable end product—one of the reasons just 10% of plastic in the United States gets recycled. Now, researchers have created a plastic with a special chemical bond that helps it separate out from those additives, turning it back into a pure, valuable product that can be reused again and again.To make the new material, researchers tweaked a type of vitrimer, a glasslike plastic developed in 2011, by adding molecules that change the chemical bonds holding it together. These new bonds, called dynamic covalent diketoenamine bonds, require less energy to break than those in traditional plastics.As a result, the new plastic can be broken down into its constituent parts using just a solution of water and a strong acid at room temperature, the researchers report today in Nature Chemistry. The process doesn’t require a catalyst to set off the reaction, either, making it easy to collect high-quality recycled plastic from the resulting slurry. But the plastic isn’t at risk of falling apart ahead of schedule—researchers say the powerful acid required to break it down isn’t something most users are likely to encounter. Just 10% of U.S. plastic gets recycled. A new kind of plastic could change that Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)last_img read more

first_img But when it comes to predicting changes to a storm’s intensity, the underlying physics becomes much more complicated, says Kerry Emanuel, a professor of atmospheric sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. That’s because hurricanes are complex, massive rotating heat engines, Emanuel says, fueled by a favorable combination of warm ocean water, moist air, and consistent atmospheric winds.Hurricanes have a theoretical limit on how intense they can become in terms of wind speed, he notes, but it is never reached because storms are derailed by one of the trio of factors mentioned above. For example, storms lose fuel when they travel over cooler water or onto land. And inconsistent atmospheric winds can be an obstacle to intensification. For instance, when “wind speed varies with height,” Emanuel says, “you get what’s known as wind shear. This can tip over the core of the hurricane and allow dry air to invade, which disrupts the storm like tossing water on a fire.”Scientists now have an arsenal of tools—including piloted and robotic aircraft that NOAA flies alongside storms—that collect data on a host of variables that can be incorporated into weather models, and help researchers estimate when a hurricane will rev up. Such data help reveal the larger physical processes at play, Rogers says. But there is still considerable work to do in understanding finer-scale microprocesses that also dictate how quickly a hurricane will intensify. “Thunderstorm formation, raindrop formation, ice particle formation, all these things are happening inside each hurricane and can affect its intensity,” he says. “These micro-level processes can be very challenging to model.”Researchers also know little about a crucial zone where the ocean and atmosphere meet. Most of a hurricane’s heat flux takes place in this transitional layer, where water and air mix into a sort of emulsion. “It’s nearly impossible to get samples from this layer, and it’s tricky to simulate this kind of condition in the lab to study it,” Emanuel says.Still, researchers are making some progress on improving intensity forecasts. More data are always helpful, Rogers says, and NOAA was able to collect a “substantial amount” from Hurricane Michael. Rogers’s team is also working on developing robust unmanned aircraft to fly directly into storms and collect higher quality data about microprocesses. Several teams are also developing probes and submersibles to monitor the water column during hurricanes—including the international Argo program that distributes instrumented floats that drift with currents and periodically sink below the surface.Meteorologists are also keeping a close eye on climate change, as warmer oceans and rising sea levels could complicate hurricane intensity predictions. “If you put more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and warm the climate, the maximum speed limit for hurricane goes up,” Emanuel says. “The rate at which hurricanes can intensify also increases, meaning you could have storms intensify much faster than Michael.” If storms rev up more quickly, authorities will have less time to coordinate evacuation efforts, which could prove both deadly and expensive. “It’s a forecaster’s worst nightmare,” Emanuel says, “to go to bed one evening with a tropical storm somewhere in the Gulf of Mexico and wake up the next morning with a Category-4 storm just about to make landfall.” Jabin Botsford/The Washington Post/Getty Images Email Why scientists had trouble predicting Hurricane Michael’s rapid intensification Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*)center_img By Frankie SchembriOct. 15, 2018 , 4:05 PM Hurricane Michael roared into Mexico Beach, Florida, on 10 October as the strongest storm ever to strike the Florida Panhandle in terms of wind speed, and the third strongest to make landfall in the continental United States. The storm caused severe damage to several coastal communities, Tyndall Air Force Base, and Florida State University’s Panama City campus. Officials have attributed 18 deaths to the storm and dozens of people have been reported missing.Although National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecasters were able to predict where and when Michael was likely to make landfall several days in advance, the storm’s rapid intensification—jumping from a Category 2 to just shy of a Category 5 in 24 hours—proved tougher to anticipate. NHC defines “rapid intensification” as a storm’s maximum sustained winds increasing by at least 56 kilometers per hour in 24 hours or less. Michael underwent at least three intensification periods on its 5-day march toward the coast.“Predicting a hurricane’s track is relatively straightforward because storms are propelled in one direction or another by the large-scale air currents in the atmosphere,” says Robert Rogers, a meteorologist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) Hurricane Research Division in Miami, Florida. “We’ve gotten a much better handle on predicting those large-scale currents over the past 20 years.” Hurricane Michael, whose rapid intensification proved difficult to forecast, made landfall on 10 October near Mexico Beach, Florida. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwelast_img read more

first_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Hospital’s suspension of evidence-based medicine expert sparks new controversy By Gretchen Vogel, Martin EnserinkNov. 7, 2018 , 5:00 PM The researcher at the center of a controversy roiling Cochrane, an international network of doctors and researchers, headquartered in London, that promotes evidence-based medicine, has been suspended as head of the Nordic Cochrane Centre in Copenhagen. Peter Gøtzsche, who was a founding member of Cochrane in 1993, has attracted attention for his outspoken critiques of pharmaceutical companies—and sometimes of Cochrane itself. In September, Cochrane’s governing board voted to remove him for “a consistent pattern of disruptive and inappropriate behaviours.” That decision led four other board members to resign in protest. Two weeks later, Gøtzsche said he would withdraw the Nordic Cochrane Centre from the international organization.That was unacceptable to the board, however. In an interview with Science last month, Cochrane co-chair Marguerite Koster, a senior manager at Kaiser Permanente, said Cochrane CEO Mark Wilson would try to convince the Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen and the Danish government, which funds the Nordic Cochrane Center, to keep the center within the collaboration. Because he’s been ousted as a member, “Peter Gøtzsche no longer is the director of the Nordic Cochrane Center,” she argued. The board also took control of the website for the center and removed Gøtzsche’s statements about the case from it; he has since posted updates about the fight on his own website.It’s unclear whether Cochrane’s lobbying has had any effect, but yesterday, the Rigshospitalet, which hosts the Nordic Cochrane Centre, announced it had suspended Gøtzsche. “We’re striving to ensure that the Nordic Cochrane Centre continues as part of the international Cochrane Collaboration,” Deputy Chief Executive Per Jørgensen said in a statement. A spokesperson told Science the hospital would not give any further reasons for the suspension. Assistant Director Karsten Juhl Jørgensen has been appointed as acting head of the center, and the hospital has asked the University of Copenhagen to take over supervision of its graduate students. SCANPIX DENMARK/REUTERS/Newscom Email Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) In response, more than 3500 health care professionals, scientists, and public health advocates signed a letter protesting the hospital’s move to the Danish minister of health, who oversees the hospital as part of the national health system. Spanish politician David Hammerstein Mintz, one of the Cochrane board members who resigned in September, coordinated the petition, which gathered signatures for 3 days. Fiona Godlee, editor-in-chief of The BMJ, and Iain Chalmers, another founder of Cochrane, were among the signers. The letter states that Gøtzsche’s work has “played a pivotal role in favor of the transparency of clinical data, the priority of public health needs and the defense of rigorous medical research carried out independently of conflicts of interest.” The signers urge the minister “to reconsider this possible dismissal.”Gerd Antes, an evidence-based medicine expert at the Center for Advanced Studies at Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich, Germany, and former head of the Cochrane Germany in Freiburg says he is “amazed” at the number of signatures. “How do you get 3000 people signing something in 3 days? This shows how wrong the board is,” he says. He says although Gøtzsche “has made mistakes … the actions of the board were devastatingly incompetent.”Gøtzsche says he was informed last week that he was being suspended. “The only reason that they gave was that they no longer had confidence in my leadership,” he told Science. He says he is working with a lawyer to challenge the move.Cochrane, meanwhile, is calling for applications for board members to replace the four who resigned. Applications close next week, and voting is scheduled to begin later this month.last_img read more

first_imgThe Thirty Meter Telescope would be the 22nd instrument atop Mauna Kea. Japan’s Subaru (left) and the Keck telescopes are shown. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Email peace portal photo/Alamy Stock Photo Last week, the state of Hawaii gave astronomers a green light to begin to build the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), which would rise on the volcanic peak of Mauna Kea as one of the largest telescopes in the world. Project leaders say they are set to begin construction after a 4-year delay caused by sit-down protests and court challenges from Native Hawaiians opposed to structures on a site they consider sacred. But some astronomers worry the threat of disruptions and even violence will persist.“These are passionate people,” says Richard Ellis, an astronomer at University College London who helped develop the TMT concept. “They know that once it gets going their case is weaker.” Others say the project should do more to engage with the protesters. “We need to talk with people who disagree with us,” says Thayne Currie, an astrophysicist the NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California, who works on Japan’s Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea.Although legal barriers are now removed, opponents say they can still try to block access to the road that leads up to the 4200-meter-high summit. “What other tools do we have, apart from having people arrested in large numbers?” asks Kealoha Pisciotta, founder of Mauna Kea Anaina Hou, one of the main opposition organizations. In 2015, 1000 protesters gathered on the mountain, but “there are way, way more people involved now,” she says. The astronomers “may have won in the courts, but they haven’t won the moral high ground.”The TMT and its rivals, Europe’s 39-meter Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) and a second U.S. project, the 25-meter Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT), are the future of ground-based astronomy. Their giant mirrors will gather enough light to probe the atmospheres of nearby exoplanets and detect the first galaxies forming in the early universe.Backed by six universities and nations and costing more than $1 billion, the TMT was once the leader of the pack, but the problems on Mauna Kea mean it now lags the ELT and GMT, which have both begun construction at sites in Chile. Protesters disrupted a groundbreaking ceremony in 2014 and brought construction to a halt in June 2015. Then, opponents successfully argued in court that the state of Hawaii had issued the project a construction permit before they could voice objections. The permit was rescinded while “contested case” hearings took place. Finally, in October 2018, Hawaii’s Supreme Court upheld the permit. Last week, the state’s Department of Land and Natural Resources gave the TMT a “notice to proceed,” meaning that it could move ahead with construction.TMT managers are now in discussion with various local agencies, including law enforcement, about the best time to start, says TMT Executive Director Edward Stone, of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. “We’ll take whatever time it takes to make a decision,” he says.All Mauna Kea observatories are on land leased to the University of Hawaii in 1968 for 65 years. Later plans set a limit of 13 telescopes on the summit and restricted their size. But counting the eight 6-meter dishes of the Submillimeter Array as separate instruments, the TMT will actually be the 22nd scope; at 18 stories high, it will also be the tallest building on the Big Island. Pisciotta says its position, on a pristine site, enlarges the footprint of the observatory and interferes in religious practices. Her group wants no further building outside the existing observatory footprint and says any new telescopes should occupy the sites of old ones.In 2015, Hawaii’s governor, David Ige, proposed a compromise that would remove older telescopes. Four have been identified for closure and a fifth has yet to be chosen. But this needs to happen much faster, Currie says. “That more than anything else will take the air out of the protests,” he says. Currie also says Hawaiian legislators should pass a bill halting further expansion of the observatory. “We need some way to reassure people,” he says. “The level of trust is very low.”TMT leaders say they have gone to great lengths to win over the public, and emphasize the money and jobs astronomy brings to the island. Astronomers talk at schools, classes are invited up to Mauna Kea for observations, and high school graduates can take on internships. “It’s hard to hate someone who is good to your kids,” says Mary Beth Laychak, outreach manager at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea.But others argue that promoting astronomy misses the point. What motivates many protesters are historical grievances over Native Hawaiian rights and cultural practices since the United States annexed the islands in 1898, Pisciotta says. With protesters backed into a corner, Currie says, TMT leaders should reach out. “The protesters need to feel they are getting something out of this.”Stone says there have been talks but declined to give details, although he cites the 44 days of contested case hearings. “That’s a lot of time listening,” he says. Tensions are likely to persist: Last week, state officials removed four structures from the mountain, including two shrines, or ahus, from the TMT site. As Michael Balogh, an astronomer at the University of Waterloo in TMT partner country Canada, puts it, “You can imagine lots of ways in which the situation becomes unacceptable.”*Correction, 28 June, 11 a.m.: An earlier version of this story misstated the numbers of telescopes so far marked for closure and shrines removed from the mountain. It also included comments that misstated how much the TMT blocks views. Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwecenter_img Update, 11 July, 9 a.m.: The governor of Hawaii, David Ige (D), and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) International Observatory announced on 10 July that construction of the TMT would begin next week. In a statement, the governor said that, to ensure the safety and security of the public and personnel, the access road to the summit observatory on Mauna Kea would be closed and there would be other road closures to allow large equipment to be brought in. In addition, several areas of the Mauna Kea Forest Reserve designated for hunting would temporarily be closed for hunting.Meanwhile, in a last ditch attempt to stop the project, opposition groups led by Native Hawaiians and Kanaka Maoli religious and cultural practitioners and protectors on 8 July filed a petition asking the Third Circuit Court of Hawaii to block construction. The opponents argue that the governor, the attorney general of Hawaii, the Board of Land and Natural Resources, the University of Hawaii, the mayor of Hawaii county, and the TMT International Observatory had failed to comply with the rules of a 1977 management plan for Mauna Kea requiring the project to post a security bond equivalent to the construction contract cost. “By failing to post the bond they have laid all financial liability on the People of Hawai’i, in the event the TMT doesn’t get full funding and this is especially important because they don’t have full funding now,” says opposition activist Kealoha Pisciotta of Mauna Kea Anaina Hou.Here is our previous story from 25 June:  By Daniel CleryJul. 11, 2019 , 9:00 AM Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Update: Hawaii governor says construction of controversial giant telescope will begin soonlast_img read more

first_imgOn Thursday, Rampur police registered an FIR against Azam Khan and Aaly Hasan after inquiry conducted on complaints of local residents that their land were grabbed. and it was later included in the premises of Jauhar University.Azam Khan’s son Mohammad Abdullah Azam Khan, MLA from Swar, claimed that land of 26 complainants were purchased in 2006 and payments were made through cheques. “This will be clear if the land deeds are checked. All the allegations are false.”He said police were harassing his father and Aaly Hasan Khan after filing a “false case” against them. “Police have also falsely implicated Waseem and made wrong allegations against him and his mother.” Akhilesh Yadav forms 21-member panel to probe ‘fake cases’ lodged against Azam Khan Related News Azam Khan, Lukcnow, Lucknow news, Azam Khan Rampur, Rampur, Rampur Azam Khan, Azam Khan MP, Azam Khan land mafia, uttar pradesh land mafia case, Azam Khan list of land mafia, indian express news Samajwadi Party leader Azam Khan (Express Photo)The district administration of Uttar Pradesh’s Rampur as well as the police have begun the process of including names of senior Samajwadi Party leader and Rampur MP Azam Khan and his close aide, retired deputy superintendent of Police Aaly Hasan Khan, in the list of persons allegedly associated with land mafia in the state. The move comes after complaints against them by several local residents of Rampur to the district administration alleging that Azam, with the help of Aaly Hasan, who was then posted in Rampur, grabbed their land that was used in the “extension” of Mohammad Ali Jauhar University. Azam Khan is chancellor of the university, while Aaly Hasan is its chief security officer.On Friday, the Rampur police arrested Aaly Hasan’s 24-year-old son Waseem, a businessman, for allegedly misbehaving and threatening a police team that had gone to their residence while searching for Aaly Hasan.Waseem, along with his mother Sabina, was booked on several charges, said Azeemnagar police station SHO Rajeev Kumar. Two FIRs registered against Azam Khan’s son, aides in two days Advertising Advertising By Express News Service |Lucknow | Updated: July 14, 2019 8:41:14 am Samajwadi Party panel to probe ‘false cases’ against Azam Khan Post Comment(s)last_img read more

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Oct 3 2018Researchers at VIB and KU Leuven have uncovered a new molecular interaction that governs the formation of specific functional connections between two types of neurons. It gives an important clue as to how unique interactions give shape to precisely organized neuronal networks in the brain.Pyramidal neurons are named after their cell body, which is shaped like a pyramid with multiple long protrusions. Like large trees, these protrusions extend through multiple brain tissue layers where they make connections with both neighboring and more distant neurons.A tree with many branches”Pyramidal neurons are very complex cells,” explains prof. Joris de Wit, who heads the lab of Synapse Biology at VIB and KU Leuven. “They receive signals through many different neuronal connections, or synapses, and this allows them to process various types of information.”This precise organization of connectivity is essential for normal brain function, but the mechanisms that orchestrate it are not well understood. “Our research is all about figuring out how this synaptic architecture is regulated in the brain,” says de Wit.In a new study published in Neuron, his team identifies a new protein interaction that mediates the formation of one very specific type of synapse, namely that between so-called mossy fibers and pyramidal neurons located in a specific region in the hippocampus, the brain area central to learning and memory.A newly uncovered interactionIt all started with a hint in earlier findings of the research group. “We knew that proteins called glypicans are very important for synaptic development,” says Giuseppe Condomitti, member of de Wit’s team and first author on the study. “In our experiments we had observed that glypican 4 was present in large numbers on the mossy fibers, but we also knew that its previously identified binding partner wasn’t present on pyramidal neurons. So there had to be something else going on here at this synapse.”Related StoriesRepurposing a heart drug could increase survival rate of children with ependymomaSlug serves as ‘command central’ for determining breast stem cell healthNew research links “broken heart syndrome” to cancerTheir curiosity led the scientists to identify a new interaction between glypican 4, a protein that has been linked to autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability, and GPR158, a receptor that is located exclusively on the part of the pyramidal neuron’s tree that receives connections from the mossy fibers.”The specificity of the GPR158 receptor for this particular synapse was very surprising to us. Even if we overexpressed the receptor in pyramidal neurons, we still found it only at mossy fiber synapses”, says de Wit. When the researchers removed GPR158, the structure and function of mossy fiber synapses was dramatically impaired. “But other connections on the pyramidal neurons were completely normal,” adds Condomitti, “again showing that GPR158 specifically controls mossy fiber synapses.”In a collaboration with researchers at the Scripps Research Institute in the US, published on the same day in Cell Reports, de Wit and Condomitti helped demonstrate that a similar mechanism also controls connectivity in the retina, suggesting that the interaction they uncovered shapes connectivity in different parts of the brain.Tip of the icebergTechnological advances have enabled neuroscientists to study the brain at an increasingly detailed level, and the single-cell revolution is at full speed. These new research findings take it one step further, unraveling unique biological features at the resolution of specific connections.”It is fascinating to see how unique molecular interactions give shape to different connections in the brain”, continues de Wit. “I think that what we have seen so far is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of molecular diversity of brain connections. We have no idea yet what mechanisms may shape the other connections on pyramidal neurons. Understanding the molecular blue print of all connections in a brain region like the hippocampus will be a major challenge for years to come.” Source:http://www.vib.be/en/news/Pages/Making-the-right-connections.aspxlast_img read more

first_img“Siri Shortcuts has a lot of potential,” observed Bob O’Donnell, chief analyst at Technalysis Research.”It’s going to take people a while to figure it out, but in terms of the impact of what was announced today, that will have some of the most long-term potential impact,” he told TechNewsWorld.”It’s something people have been looking for so it’s a little overdue,” added O’Donnell.The new feature could make Siri more competitive.”It allows Siri to more strongly compete with Alexa and Google Assistant,” Reticle’s Rubin said. Better Performance for Older Devices A Way, but Is There a Will? Apple also announced a new file format, USDZ, for Augmented Reality IT and ARKit 2.”Apple is leading Google in AR and adding more to this platform should further cement the lead,” said Gerrit Schneemann, a senior analyst with IHS Markit Technology.Apple further revealed that iOS 12 will improve the performance of older devices. Apps will launch as much as 40 percent faster, the keyboard will appear 50 percent faster, and slide-to-take-a-photo will be 70 percent faster.”It’s interesting that Apple talked about iOS 12 support for devices going back to the iPhone 6s,” Schneemann told TechNewsWorld. “That’s a key difference between Google’s software rollout and support track record.”Paying more attention to legacy hardware reflects the reality of the current smartphone market, added Technalysis’ O’Donnell.”People are holding on to their phones longer,” he said, “so this is a feel-good move for Apple to let people know they don’t have to have the latest and greatest phones to get the latest and greatest software features.” Another conference highlight was the introduction of Apple’s “Time Well Spent” program, which gives users tools to help manage their phone usage.”Some apps demand more of our attention than we might even realize,” said Craig Federighi, Apple’s senior vice president for software engineering.”They beg us to use our phone when we really should be occupying ourselves with something else,” he noted, and for “some of us, it’s become such a habit that we might not even recognize just how distracted we’ve become.” The next version of Apple’s mobile operating system, iOS 12, will include a new feature that allows you to customize the way Siri works with applications on phones and tablets. The announcement was one of the highlights at the kickoff of Apple’s Worldwide Developers Conference at the McEnery Convention Center in San Jose, California, on Monday.Called “Siri Shortcuts,” the feature lets a user define a phrase that will trigger a set of actions by the apps on a device. For example, you could say, “Game Time” to get a team schedule from TeamSnap, or “Groceries” to fulfill a standing grocery order from a grocery app.Apple also announced a Shortcuts app to perform multiple tasks at the mention of a phrase. You could say, “Surf’s Up,” for instance, and your phone automatically would display the latest surf report and weather, give you an ETA from your current location to the beach, and remind you to put on sunscreen when you get there.”Apple has taken a lot of criticism for not making Siri more open,” explained Ross Rubin, principal analyst at Reticle Research.”This essentially opens it up to any app, but the tradeoff is you may have to create your own custom phrases for some of these things to work,” he told TechNewsWorld. ” Reining In Notificationscenter_img Long-Term Potential “I think it’s a worthwhile effort that at least partly addresses how unnecessarily intrusive smartphones have become,” said Charles King, principal analyst at Pund-IT.”However, I’ll wait to see when or whether Apple ever releases any data on how many customers are actually using Time Well Spent features before making any further judgements,” he told TechNewsWorld.Apple’s efforts are praiseworthy, said Kevin Krewell, principal analyst at Tirias Research, but with a caveat.”The ability to monitor the amount of time you spend on things like social media is definitely a step in the right direction for people suffering from addiction to their phones,” he told TechNewsWorld, “but you still have to proactively monitor those things. The question is, are people willing to do it?” Tools Against Addiction Apple also announced “Do Not Disturb During Bedtime,” a tool that chokes off most traffic to the phone during sleeping hours.A problem some phone users may find with “Do Not Distrub” is forgetting to deactivate it. Apple addresses that by allowing an end-time to the feature.More controls for notifications will be part of the next version of iOS’ repertoire. The destination of notifications from an app can be controlled from a phone’s lock screen. Siri also will make recommendations about notifications coming from low-usage apps.Apple announced a group notification feature: Notifications within a group can be viewed with a tap and trashed with a swipe.Another management feature is “Screen Time.” It provides you with detailed weekly reports on how you’re using your phone or tablet.You also can set limits on how long you use an app during the day.Parents can view activity reports on kids’ phones, and they can control their children’s phone usage through the app. John P. Mello Jr. has been an ECT News Network reportersince 2003. His areas of focus include cybersecurity, IT issues, privacy, e-commerce, social media, artificial intelligence, big data and consumer electronics. He has written and edited for numerous publications, including the Boston Business Journal, theBoston Phoenix, Megapixel.Net and GovernmentSecurity News. Email John.last_img read more

first_imgIs social media evolving into an antisocial medium? Days after one of its former execs argued that the answer is yes, Facebook published a post addressing the issue.”I think we have created tools that are ripping apart the social fabric of how society works,” Chamath Palihapitiya, who once served as vice president for growth at Facebook, told an audience at the Stanford Graduate School of Business last week.”The short-term, dopamine-driven feedback loops we’ve created are destroying how society works,” he maintained.There is a lack of civil discourse and cooperation on social media, as well as widespread distribution of misinformation and mistruth, according to Palihapitiya.”It’s not an American problem,” he said. “This is not about Russians ads. This is a global problem.” Social media can both foster and inhibit interaction, asserted Karen North, a professor of digital social media at the University of Southern California.”It can extend out social interactions to times and places when we wouldn’t otherwise be able to interact with each other,” she told TechNewsWorld.”Usually to interact with people, you need to be in proximity to each other,” North explained. “Social media allows us to be together even when we are physically apart.”However, social media interaction differs from proximity interaction because it’s done through a device and involves content creation.”That can interfere with people interacting more personally,” North said. There are a number of ways for individuals to avoid the potential negative consequences of social media, said Brian Primack, director of the University of Pittsburgh Center for Research on Media, Technology and Health.There is a connection between increased depressive symptoms and the increased proportion of social media friends you don’t know in real life to those you do know, he noted.”We also found that your mental health is better if you report that a higher proportion of your friends is what you would consider ‘close’ friends,” Primack told TechNewsWorld.Limiting the number of social platforms you participate in can be beneficial, as the number of platforms a person uses can be a predictor of poor mental health, he observed.Establish strict guidelines for when and where you use social media, may be helpful, Primack ventured.”Many families are declaring evening time to be device free,” he noted. “They have everyone in the family drop their devices in a box at the front door, so that everyone can really focus on each other during a family dinner and other evening activities.” PR Awareness Wellness Through Better New Feeds To help foster interaction, Facebook has made a number of changes to its services, Ginsberg and Burke noted.For example, it has started demoting clickbait headlines and false news, and prioritizing posts from people users care about to foster more meaningful interactions and reduce passive consumption of low-quality content.It also added a “snooze” feature allowing users to hide posts from a person, group or page for 30 days.Take a Break is another tool designed to remove stressful content. It gives users more control over when they see an ex-partner, what their ex can view, and who can look at past posts about the relationship.In addition, the company has launched several suicide prevention initiatives, the Facebook researchers wrote.Facebook has invested US$1 million toward research to better understand the relationship between media technologies, youth development and well-being, they added. Facebook’s acknowledgment that there’s more to social media than fun and sharing, and its moves to address the darker aspects of its community may not be entirely altruistic, suggested John Carroll, a mass communications professor at Boston University.Still, “it’s a sign their awareness of bad PR has started to rise,” he told TechNewsWorld, .”Many people think these steps are largely cosmetic. I don’t see a lot of newfound enlightenment in Mark Zuckerberg these days,” Carroll added. “He’s in a position of influence and importance in the world that he doesn’t want to face up to.” center_img Two Sides to Interaction Good and Bad Social Media Avoiding Social Media Blues Some people feel bad after using social media, but others do not, wrote Facebook Director of Research David Ginsberg and Research Scientist Moira Burke.”According to the research, it really comes down to how you use the technology,” they said.”For example, on social media, you can passively scroll through posts, much like watching TV, or actively interact with friends — messaging and commenting on each other’s posts,” Ginsberg and Burke pointed out.”Just like in person, interacting with people you care about can be beneficial, while simply watching others from the sidelines may make you feel worse,” they explained. John P. Mello Jr. has been an ECT News Network reportersince 2003. His areas of focus include cybersecurity, IT issues, privacy, e-commerce, social media, artificial intelligence, big data and consumer electronics. He has written and edited for numerous publications, including the Boston Business Journal, theBoston Phoenix, Megapixel.Net and GovernmentSecurity News. Email John.last_img read more

first_imgShutterstock | Lifestyle discoverStudy author Deborah Ossip and colleagues found that vapers were almost twice as likely to experience wheezing compared with people wo did not use the devices.Wheezing is caused by abnormal or narrowed airways and is often a precursor to other health problems such as emphysema, lung cancer and sleep apnea.Related StoriesE-cigarette use on the rise among cancer patients and cancer survivorsTraditional and e-cigarette users may be more receptive to smoking cessation interventionsStudy explores adolescent vaping and its association with delinquencyOssip says the study results support other research showing that vaping damages lung cells and inflames lung tissue.”The take-home message is that electronic cigarettes are not safe when it comes to lung health. The changes we’re seeing with vaping, both in laboratory experiments and studies of people who vape, are consistent with early signs of lung damage, which is very worrisome,” she says.Estimates from the National Center for Health Statistics show that almost 13% of adults in the US have tried vaping and almost 4% are current users. Although the devices are marketed as a safer alternative to smoking cigarettes, many people are concerned about the long-term health consequences.As reported in the journal Tobacco Control, Ossip and team assessed data covering more than 28,000 adults in the US who participated in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study.The study showed that participants who vaped were 1.7 times more likely to experience wheezing and difficulty breathing, compared with non-vapers.Lead author Dongmei Li acknowledges that the study did have limitations such as the data being self-reported and excluding certain factors such as diet and physical activity levels.However, senior author Irfan Rahman says the research still clearly identifies a health problem associated with vaping, which is a concern given the increase in uptake of the habit. A report from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention showed that in 2018, there was a 78% increase in uptake among ninth to 12th graders and a 48% increase among sixth to eighth graders.Rahman is worried that the number of young people who choose to vape will only continue to increase and that serious health consequences such as loss of immunity, allergy and infection will follow. By Sally Robertson, B.Sc.Mar 1 2019Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center have found that using electronic cigarettes or “vaping” is associated with wheezing. Source:https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-02/uorm-nsl022819.phlast_img read more

first_img Source:http://www.dartmouth.edu/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Apr 9 2019A computer science research team at Dartmouth College has produced a smart fabric that can help athletes and physical therapy patients correct arm angles to optimize performance, reduce injury and accelerate recovery.The proposed fabric-sensing system is a flexible, motion-capture textile that monitors joint rotation. The wearable is lightweight, low-cost, washable and comfortable, making it ideal for participants of all levels of sport or patients recuperating from injuries.The study, published in Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies, will be presented later this year at the UbiComp 2019 conference in London in September.”We wear fabrics all the time, so they provide the perfect medium for continuous sensing,” said Xia Zhou, an associate professor of computer science at Dartmouth. “This study demonstrates the high level of performance and precision that can be acquired through basic, off-the-shelf fabrics.”Accurate monitoring of joint movement is critical for performance coaching and physical therapy. For athletes where arm angle is important–anyone from baseball pitchers to tennis players– long-term sensing can help instructors analyze motion and provide coaching corrections. For injured athletes, or other physical therapy patients, such monitoring can help doctors assess the effectiveness of medical and physical treatments.In order to be effective to a wide-range of wearers, monitors need to be portable, comfortable, and capable of sensing subtle motion to achieve a high-level of precision.”Without a smart sensor, long-term monitoring would be impractical in a coaching or therapy,” said Qijia Shao, a PhD student at Dartmouth who worked on the study. “This technology eliminates the need for around-the-clock professional observation.”While body joint monitoring technologies already exist, they can require heavy instrumentation of the environment or rigid sensors. Other e-textile monitors require embedded electronics, some only achieve low resolution results.The Dartmouth team focused on raising sensing capability and reliability, while using low-cost, off-the-shelf fabrics without extra electrical sensors. The minimalist approach focused on fabrics in the $50 range.Related StoriesOlympus launches next-generation X Line objectives for clinical, research applicationsTrump administration cracks down on fetal tissue researchResearch sheds light on sun-induced DNA damage and repair”For less than the price of some sweatshirts, doctors and coaches can have access to a smart-fabric sensing system that could help them improve athletic performance or quality of life,” said Shao.To design the wearable monitor, the team used a fabric made with nylon, elastic fiber and yarns plated with a thin silver layer for conductivity. Prototypes were tailored in two sizes and fitted with a micro-controller that can be easily detached to receive data on fabric resistance. The micro-controller can be further miniaturized in the future to fit inside a button.The system relies on the stretchable fabrics to sense skin deformation and pressure fabrics to sense the pressure during joint motion. Based on this information, it determines the joint rotational angle through changes in resistance. When a joint is wrapped with the conductive fabric it can sense joint motion.In a test with ten participants, the prototype achieved a very low median error of 9.69º in reconstructing elbow joint angles. This level of precision would be useful for rehabilitation applications that limit the range for patient’s joint movement. The fabric also received high marks from testers for comfort, flexibility of motion and ease of use.Experiments also showed the fabric to be fully washable with only a small amount of deterioration in effectiveness.”Testers even saw this for use in activities with high ranges of movement, like yoga or gymnastics. All participants said they’d be willing to purchase such a system for the relatively inexpensive price tag,” said Zhou, who co-directs Dartmouth’s DartNets Lab.While the prototype was only tailored for the elbow joint, it demonstrates the potential for monitoring the knee, shoulder and other important joints in athletes and physical therapy patients. Future models will also be cut for a better fit to reduce fabric wrinkling which can impact sensing performance. The team will also measure for the impact of sweat on the sensing performance.last_img read more

first_imgOur findings suggest that postmenopausal women, despite having normal weight, could have varying risk of cardiovascular disease because of different fat distributions around either their middle or their legs. In addition to overall body weight control, people may also need to pay attention to their regional body fat, even those who have a healthy body weight and normal BMI.However, it is important to note that participants of our study were postmenopausal women who had relatively higher fat mass in both their trunk and leg regions. Whether the pattern of the associations could be generalizable to younger women and to men who had relatively lower regional body fat remains unknown.” Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jul 1 2019Postmenopausal women who are “apple” shaped rather than “pear” shaped are at greater risk of heart and blood vessel problems, even if they have a normal, healthy body mass index (BMI) according to new research.In fact, the study, which is published in the European Heart Journal [1] today (Monday), found that storing a greater proportion of body fat in the legs (pear-shaped) was linked to a significantly decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in these women.This is the first study to look at where fat is stored in the body and its association with risk of CVD in postmenopausal women with normal BMI (18.5 to less than 25 kg/m2). It involved 2,683 women who were part of the Women’s Health Initiative in the USA, which recruited nearly 162,000 postmenopausal women between 1993 and 1998 and followed them until February 2017. They did not have CVD at the time of joining the study but, during a median (average) of nearly 18 years of follow-up, 291 CVD cases occurred.The researchers, led by Dr Qibin Qi, an associate professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York (USA), found that women in the top 25% of those who stored most fat round their middle or trunk (apple-shaped) had nearly double the risk of heart problems and stroke when compared to the 25% of women with the least fat stored around their middle. In contrast, the top 25% of women with the greatest proportion of fat stored in their legs had a 40% lower risk of CVD compared with women who stored the least fat in their legs.The researchers found that the highest risk of CVD occurred in women who had the highest percentage of fat around their middle and the lowest percentage of leg fat – they had a more than three-fold increased risk compared to women at the opposite extreme with the least body fat and the most leg fat.Dr Qibin Qi, an associate professor, Albert Einstein College of Medicine: The researchers calculated that, among 1000 women who kept their leg fat constant but reduced the proportion of trunk fat from more than 37% to less than 27%, approximately six CVD cases could be avoided each year, corresponding to 111 cases avoided over the 18 years of the study. Similarly, among 1000 women who kept their trunk fat constant but increased their leg fat from less than 42% to more than 49%, approximately three CVD cases could be avoided each year and 60 cases would have been avoided over the 18-year period.Dr Qi said: “In routine clinical practice, BMI is a common approach to assessing a person’s risk of cardiovascular disease. Measurement of waist circumference is also recommended by national organization to provide additional information, but usually only in those with a BMI between 25 to 34.9 kg/m2. As such, some people who are categorized as being a normal weight may not be recognized as being at increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to the distribution of their body fat, and so may not have preventive measures recommended for them.Related StoriesMortality risk from cardiovascular disease higher for people with osteoarthritisLipid-lowering drugs are underutilized for preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseaseImplanted device uses microcurrent to exercise heart muscle in cardiomyopathy patients”Our findings highlight the need for using anthropometric measures that better reflect regional fat distribution to identify increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These are important research directions for future population studies.”In the study, the researchers measured fat mass by means of a DXA scan (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry), which measures fat, muscle and bone density, and they say that at this stage it is premature to recommend DXA scans for risk screening in the normal weight population. However, measurements of waist and hip circumference and the ratio between them would provide better information than just calculating BMI. In addition, they stress that their findings do not show that the site of stored body fat causes the difference in risk of CVD, only that it is associated with it.When women reach the menopause, they can undergo changes in their body shape and metabolism; more fat may be stored around the organs in the body rather than underneath the skin. In addition, the distribution of body fat is determined by both genetics and exposure to environmental factors, such as diet and exercise.”While there have been some large studies of genetic determinants of upper- and lower-body fat, fewer large studies have focused on lifestyles factors, though modifiable factors such as physical activity and dietary intakes are thought to play key roles in determining an individual’s fat distribution,” said Dr Qi. “In the next step, our group will focus on the long-term impacts of dietary habits on fat distribution among these postmenopausal women, and evaluate whether and how dietary habits may affect multiple health risks, such as risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease and premature death, through the impacts on the distribution of body fat.”It is known already that fat stored around the organs in the abdomen increases the risk of metabolic problems, such as worse control of blood sugar levels, raised levels of insulin, inflammation and higher cholesterol levels, that can lead to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying the reason why increased leg fat may be protective are less well understood, but may be because fat stored in the legs is not causing problems elsewhere in the body.In an accompanying editorial [2], Professor Matthias Blüher and Professor Ulrich Laufs, from the University of Leipzig, Germany, write: “The study may inspire novel concepts of how a dysbalance between ‘atherogenic’ and ‘anti-atherogenic’ fat depots may indirectly contribute to vascular damage. Importantly, the study identifies a. positive effect of leg fat on ASCVD [atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease] risk.” Source:European Society of CardiologyJournal reference:Chen, G. et al. (2019) Association between regional body fat and cardiovascular disease risk among postmenopausal women with normal body mass index. European Heart Journal. doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz391last_img read more

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jul 4 2019Hesperos Inc., pioneers of the “human-on-a-chip” in vitro system has announced the use of its innovative multi-organ model to successfully measure the concentration and metabolism of two known cardiotoxic small molecules over time, to accurately describe the drug behavior and toxic effects in vivo. The findings further support the potential of body-on-a-chip systems to transform the drug discovery process.In a study published in Nature Scientific Reports, in collaboration with AstraZeneca, Hesperos described how they used a pumpless heart model and a heart:liver system to evaluate the temporal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationship for terfenadine, an antihistamine that was banned due to toxic cardiac effects, as well as determine its mechanism of toxicity.The study found there was a time-dependent, drug-induced response in the heart model. Further experiments were conducted, adding a metabolically competent liver module to the Hesperos Human-on-a-Chip® system to observe what happened when terfenadine was converted to fexofenadine. By doing so, the researchers were able to determine the driver of the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect and develop a mathematical model to predict the effect of terfenadine in preclinical species. This is the first time an in vitro human-on-a-chip system has been shown to predict in vivo outcomes, which could be used to predict clinical trial outcomes in the future. Understanding the inter-relationship between pharmacokinetics (PK), the drug’s time course for absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and PD, the biological effect of a drug, is crucial in drug discovery and development. Scientists have learned that the maximum drug effect is not always driven by the peak drug concentration. In some cases, time is a critical factor influencing drug effect, but often this concentration-effect-time relationship only comes to light during the advanced stages of the preclinical program. In addition, often the data cannot be reliably extrapolated to humans.”It is costly and time-consuming to discover that potential drug candidates may have poor therapeutic qualities preventing their onward progression,” said James Hickman, Chief Scientist at Hesperos and Professor at the University of Central Florida. “Being able to define this during early drug discovery will be a valuable contribution to the optimization of potential new drug candidates.”Related StoriesCoffee may boost weight loss, concludes studyAXT enhances cellular research product portfolio with solutions from StemBioSysMetabolic engineering of cannabinoids – are we there yet?As demonstrated with the terfenadine experiment, the PKPD modeling approach was critical for understanding both the flux of compound between compartments as well as the resulting PD response in the context of dynamic exposure profiles of both parent and metabolite, as indicated by Dr. Shuler.In order to test the viability of their system in a real-world drug discovery setting, the Hesperos team collaborated with scientists at AstraZeneca, to test one of their failed small molecules, known to have a CV risk.One of the main measurements used to assess the electrical properties of the heart is the QT interval, which approximates the time taken from when the cardiac ventricles start to contract to when they finish relaxing. Prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram can lead to a fatal arrhythmia known as Torsade de Pointes. Consequently, it is a mandatory requirement prior to first-in-human administration of potential new drug candidates that their ability to inhibit the hERG channel (a biomarker for QT prolongation) is investigated.In the case of the AstraZeneca molecule, the molecule was assessed for hERG inhibition early on, and it was concluded to have a low potential to cause in vivo QT prolongation up to 100 μM. In later pre-clinical testing, the QT interval increased by 22% at a concentration of just 3 μM. Subsequent investigations found that a major metabolite was responsible. Hesperos was able to detect a clear PD effect at concentrations above 3 μM and worked to determine the mechanism of toxicity of the molecule.The ability of these systems to assess cardiac function non-invasively in the presence of both parent molecule and metabolite over time, using multiplexed and repeat drug dosing regimes, provides an opportunity to run long-term studies for chronic administration of drugs to study their potential toxic effects.Hesperos, Inc. is the first company spun out from the Tissue Chip Program at NCATS (National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences), which was established in 2011 to address the long timelines, steep costs and high failure rates associated with the drug development process. Hesperos currently is funded through NCATS’ Small Business Innovation Research program to undertake these studies and make tissue chips technology available as a service based company.”The application of tissue chip technology in drug testing can lead to advances in predicting the potential effects of candidate medicines in people,” said Danilo Tagle, Ph.D., associate director for special initiatives at NCATS. Source:BioscribeJournal reference:McAleer, C. et al. (2019) On the potential of in vitro organ-chip models to define temporal pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships. Nature Scientific Reports. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45656-4 The ability to examine PKPD relationships in vitro would enable us to understand compound behavior prior to in vivo testing, offering significant cost and time savings. We are excited about the potential of this technology to help us ensure that potential new drug candidates have a higher probability of success during the clinical trial process.”Dr. Shuler, President and CEO, Hesperos, Inc and Professor Emeritus, Cornell Universitylast_img read more

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jul 9 2019Theranostics is an emerging field of medicine whose name is a combination of “therapeutics” and “diagnostics”. The idea behind theranostics is to combine drugs and/or techniques to simultaneously – or sequentially – diagnose and treat medical conditions, and also monitor the response of the patient. This saves time and money, but can also bypass some of the undesirable biological effects that may arise when these strategies are employed separately.Today, theranostics applications increasingly use nanoparticles that unite diagnostic molecules and drugs into a single agent. The nanoparticles act as carriers for molecular “cargo”, e.g. a drug or a radioisotope to cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy, targeting specific biological pathways in the patient’s body, while avoiding damage to healthy tissues.Related StoriesNanoparticles used to deliver CRISPR gene editing tools into the cellPersonalizing Nutritional Medicine With the Power of NMRDynamic Light Scattering measurements in concentrated solutionsOnce at their target tissue, the nanoparticles produce diagnostic images and/or deliver their cargo. This is the cutting-edge technology of “nanotheranostics”, which has become a major focus of research – albeit with many limitations to overcome.Now, the lab of Sandrine Gerber at EPFL, working with physicists at the University of Geneva, have developed a new nanotheranostic system that overcomes several problems with previous approaches. The system uses “harmonic nanoparticles” (HNPs), a family of metal-oxide nanocrystals with exceptional optical properties, in particular their emission in response to excitation from ultraviolet to infrared light, and their high photostability. It was this feature that brought HNPs into nanotheranostics, when scientists were trying to solve some problems with fluorescent probes.”Most light-activated nanotheranostic systems need high-energy UV light to excite their photoresponsive scaffolds,” says Gerber. “The problem is that this results in poor penetration depth and can damage living cells and tissues, which limits biomedical applications.”The new system that Gerber’s group developed avoids these problems by using silica-coated bismuth-ferrite HNPs functionalized with light-responsive caged molecular cargos. These systems can be easily activated with near-infrared light (wavelength 790 nanometers) and imaged at longer wavelength for both detection and drug release processes. Both these features render the system medically safe for patients.Once light-triggered, the HNPs release their cargo – in this case, L-tryptophan, used as a model. The scientists monitored and quantified the release with a technique that combines liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, covering the imaging-diagnostic part of the nanotheranostic system.The authors state that “this work is an important step in the development of nanocarrier platforms allowing decoupled imaging in tissue depth and on-demand release of therapeutics.” Source:EPFLJournal reference:Vuilleumier, J. et al. (2019) Two-photon triggered photorelease of caged compounds from multifunctional harmonic nanoparticles. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b07954last_img read more